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The Challenge for Japan’s Pharmaceutical Top Twenty

Simply copying the business models of the West will not do for Japanese companies to fulfill the Ministry’s vision, except through sheer luck. To many observers, the country’s industrial genius lies in imitating and improving on Western models, as exemplified by the success stories of the Japanese electronics, ship–building, machine tool and car industries. We show in this Commentary that establishing sustainable positions of competitiveness in the global pharmaceutical industry will require more than incremental innovation.